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Monday, February 27, 2017

It's time to start keeping a list of edible species (as well as non-edibles I find useful) that I am growing in my developing permaculture plot (Temperate climate, USDA Zone 8, Washington State, USA) which includes a small property of my own as well as two neighboring properties belonging to family members.  Looking over this list it would seen that I could feed myself with this, but in reality many of these plants are still in their early stages of establishment, and not all of them are highly productive...  The species and cultivars listed in Yellow are mature enough to be producing some harvest each year.  Those in Green are usually producing very good quantities each year.  Plants with a light blue background have been acquired, but have not yet been planted out.  All others have been planted already, but are not yet producing.  Those highlighted in pink are potentially on the chopping block for removal for one reason or another.

I will continue updating and organizing this list as it is basically a rough draft at this point...


Apples (Malus domestica & hybrids):
*Wild (mature) volunteer apple - Early ripening soft fruit which are very light in flavor.  Does not keep, but I enjoy eating it when in season and have found when picked under-ripe it makes a good pectin source for mixing with other fruits without adding a strong apple flavor.
*'Liberty' - Highly disease resistant red apple.
*'Wolf River' - Extremely large red streaked apple which I grafted onto a wild volunteer seedling apple.
*'Ellisons's Orange' - An offspring of the famous English Cox's Orange Pippin.
*'Centennial' (Crab) - Highly productive of large crabs good for fresh eating, but I find they seem at their best slightly before they appear fully ripe.  Make a nice soft mushy pickle when preserved in salt brine that is a useful addition in cookig.
*'Evereste' (Crab) - Highly ornamental and productive crab that is good for cooking.
*'Gravenstein' - Vigorous tree with good quality fruit.
*'Wine Crisp' - A Patented variety that is supposed to be resistant to a range of apple diseases and a very long keeper (many months).
*New grafts - Grafting unknown dark red as well as gala and granny smith onto rootstock in pots.  Will plant out if successful.
*Columnar - Not sure which one... Either North Pole or Scarlet Sentennal.  The deer keep eating it...
*'William's Pride' - Ripens in August
*'Pristine' - Ripens in August
*Rootstock, Semi-dwarf - Collected from root suckers from a friend's tree.  The trees seemed to be fairly productive & sturdy, and all in the 8'-12' height range.  Young stems seem to have a good bit of pigment in them making them dark, but the leaves are regular green.
*Rootstock, Semi-dwarf/vigorous? - Collected from root suckers from one of my columnar apples.  It could potentially be either MM106 (Semi-vigorous 10'-14') or M7 (Semi-Dwarf 9'-12') rootstock since both options are used for columnar apples, but M7 seems to be the most likely identity since I remember the rootstock was listed as "semi-dwarf" when I purchased it.  We can safely say this would produce trees in the 9'-14' range.

Pears (Pyrus sp.):
*'Bosc' (P. communis) - Classic high quality pear that should keep well and have some disease resistance.
*'Rescue' (P. communis)
*'Seckel' (P. communis)
*'Shinseiki' (P. pyrifolia) - Disease resistant and good keeper.

Medlar (Mespilus germanica):
*'Monstrueuse de Evreinoff' - Large fruited French variety.

Quince (Cydonia oblonga):
*'Aromatnaya' (Cydonia oblonga)
*'Van Deman' (Cydonia oblonga)

Flowering Quince (Chaenomeles sp):
*'Toyo Nishiki' (C. speciosa) - Multi colored flowers.
*Seed Grown (C. cathayensis) - More tree like with larger fruit than common flowering quince.  Not commonly available.

Stone Fruits (Prunus sp. & hybrids):
*Cherry Plums (P. cerasifera) - Non-native volunteer with each tree having slightly different flavor and overall quality.  Some with deep purple/red leaves and some with green leaves.  Fruit small, but abundant.  Some specimens tend to bear biannually.
*Un-named, but name worthy selection of Cherry Plum (P. cerasifera) - Found along a roadside, this specimen has heavy production (every year) of small, dense/meaty, good flavored plums that are great for fresh eating even before fully ripe which gives them a longer season of harvest for fresh eating.  I've gotten a handful of cuttings to root and will be planting at least one for myself and sharing some as well as saving one for stool propagation for further sharing.
*Unknown, probably St. Julien (P. insititia) - Very sweet green plum that turned out not to be anything like the variety supposedly planted.  Probably a rootstock tree due to graft failure in the nursery before purchase.
*Unknown Sweet Plum (P. sp) - Very sugary variety planted from a root sucker from a clonal patch at a friend's house.
*'Early Golden' Plum (P. salicina) - Excellent yellow plum.  When fully ripe has a texture reminiscent of apricots with flavor suggesting peach.  
*'Jam Session' Plum (P. sp.) - Damson type.
*Sweet Cherries (P. avium) - Wild non-native volunteers.  Sweet fruit with smaller size than commercial cultivars and variable in color and flavor.  Attractive tall trees with most fruit held out of reach.
*Sour Cherries (P. cerasus), 'Surefire' - Highly disease resistant cultivar with tart fruit that still has enough sugar for fresh eating or cooking.
*'Black Boy' Peach (P. persica) - Very dark fleshed peach with resistance to peach leaf curl.

Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa):
*Seed grown - Productive dark berries good for winemaking.

Service Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia)
*Seed grown - Native edible fruit similar to blueberries, but biologically like mini apples.
*Unkown - from Cascadia Edible Landscapes in Seattle.
*'Regent' - a stoloniferous variety that flowers and fruits havily.  I strongly suspect that although listed as A. alnifolia, it is quite likely to be either A. stolonifera or a hybrid.

Strawberries (Fragaria sp. & hybrids):
*Pink variety (F. ananasa x Comarum sp.), also growing seeds out from this variety - Pink flowers almost year round with fruit set during warmer months.  Clumping and not highly productive.
*Alpine (F. vesca) - Clumping, and readily growing from seed.  Both red and white berry forms setting fruit whenever weather is warm enough for pollinators.
*Native (F. sp.) - Small, probably runner-less plants with tiny tasty fruit of the June bearing type.
*'Totem' (F. ananasa) - June bearing with very upright stems on vigorous plants.  Great flavor.

Blackberries & Raspberries (Rubus sp.):
*Red Raspberries, unknown variety (R. idaeus) - Originally from Tolstoy Farm in Eastern Washington.
*Red Raspberries, 'Tulameen' (R. idaeus)
*Red Raspberries, 'NR7' (R. idaeus) - Compact, dwarf and thornless.  Produces on both new and second year stems.
*Black Raspberries, 'Ohio Treasure' (R. occidentalis) - Bears on both first and second year growth.
*Dewberry (R. ursinus) - Trailing native with separate male and female plants.  Not highly productive, but very tasty.
*'Triple Crown' (R. fruticosus) - Vigorous, thornless.
*'Ouachita' (probably) Blackberry (R. fruticosus) - Upright, thornless.
*'Wild Treasure' Blackberry (R. sp.) - Thornless hybrid of native dewberry and Waldo blackberry.
*Salmonberry (R. spectabilis) - Native, shrubby, common.  Fruit orange to red and of variable quality.
*Thimbleberry (R. parviflorus) - Native, variable productivity.  Very tasty when ripe and well watered.
*Black Cap Raspberry (R. leucodermus) - Native black raspberry with whitish finish on stems giving it ornamental look.  Lightly productive of pleasant tasting, but overly mild fruits.
*Himalayan (R. armeniacus) - Highly invasive with some areas producing abundant crops and others just wasting space with poor production and accessibility.  Control measures in place.
*Evergreen/Cutleaf (R. laciniatus) - Invasive, but not common.  Seeking eradication.
*Nagoon Berry (R. articus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.  Self-fertile.
*All Field Berry 'Valentina' (R. articus x stellarticus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.
*All Field Berry 'Sophia' (R. articus x stellarticus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.

Rose Hips (Rosa sp. & Hybrids):
*'MEIdomonac' aka "Bonica" - Heavy blooming pale pink rose that was planted as an ornamental and surprised me with a nice crop of rose hips.  I did try making tea from them which was pleasant so I will continue using it for hips.


(Eleagnus sp.):
*'Fruitlandii' (E. pungens) - Evergreen with tasty red fruit in spring.  Winter blooming.  Doesn't seem to set fruit without a pollinator.
*'Golden Silverberry' (E. pungens) - Evergreen with variegated leaves.  Hopefully will be a good pollinator for Fruitlandii.
*'Garnet' Autumn Olive (E. umbellata) - Small red tasty berries late in the season.
*Goumi (E. multiflora) Seedling - Seed grown to help with cross-pollination.
*Goumi (E. multiflora) 'Sweet Scarlet' - Selected variety with high quality fruit.

Seaberries (Hippophae rhamnoides):
*Male - Needed to wind pollinate female cultivars.
*Female, 'Goldensweet' - Sweeter than average.  Not sure if this is due to higher sugar content or simply lower acid content.
*Female, 'Otradnaya' - Large fruit.


Figs (Ficus carica):
*'Atreano' - Green exterior.  Bifare.  Very productive of main crop.
*'Desert King' - Green exterior.  Productive of large breba crop.
*'Florea' - Aledgedly increadibly cold hardy and also productive.  I'm mostly interested in using this to share rooted starts with people in colder parts of the state.  Bifare.
*'Gillette' DIED, but will try again - Edible male variety. Bifare.
*'Hardy Chicago' - Dark exterior.  Main.
*'Olympian' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.
*'Stella'/'Cordi' - Green exterior, red interior.  Bifare.
*'Violette de Bordeaux' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.
*'Verte/Green Ischia' - Green exterior.

Mulberries (Morus sp.):
*Dwarf Black Issai (Morus alba) - Small growing bush type rather than tree like.


Blueberries/Huckleberries/Cranberries (Vaccinium sp.):
*Blueberry, 'Libery' (V. sp) - Grows up to 7 feet high.  Being planted as part of a mixed hedge.
*Blueberry, 'Pink Lemonade' (V. sp)
*Blueberry, Assorted varieties (V. sp)
*Red Huckleberry (V. parvifolium) - Native grows on rotting red cedar stumps.
*Evergreen Huckleberry (V. ovatum)
*Cranberries (V. macrocarpum) - Seed grown, plus one of the cultivar 'Stevens'.

Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo):
*'Compacta' - Attractive evergreen with ornamental and tasty fruit.  Best flavor/texture is just before they look fully ripe while they transition between orange and red.

(Gaultheria sp.):
*Salal (G. shallon) - Native evergreen understory shrub with tasty purple berries.
*Miquel's Wintergreen (G. miqueliana) - Spreading low evergreen with fragrant leaves and white berries.


Gooseberries (Ribes uva-crispa & hybrids):
*Unknown - Highly productive from a young age.  Green berries take on reddish color when at their peak of ripeness
*Unknown (probably 'Poorman') - Very tasty and not too tart, but very little production for the first few years.  Now as it's very well established it is beginning to bear heavily.
*'Hinnomaki Yellow' - Low growing.  Productive.  My favorite for fresh eating, sweet and fruity.
*'Black Velvet'Slightly more upright growth habit.  Intensely flavored small berries.

Currants (Ribes sp):
*Red Unknown (R. rubrum)
*White Unknown (R. rubrum)
*Black Unknown (R. nigrum) - Probably the variety called Consort.
*Black, 'Hill's Kiev Select' (R. nigrum x) - Hybrid black currant.
*Clove Currant (R. odoratum)
*Golden Currant (R. aureum)


Hedgehog Cacti (Echinocereus sp.):
*E. triglochidiatus v. inermis - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*E. triglochidiatus v. gonacanthus 'White Sands' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now

Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia sp.):
*O. phaeacantha v. woodsii 'Brilliant Orange' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*O. phaeacantha 'Plum' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*O. phaeacantha 'Mesa Sky' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*O. macrocentra - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now.  Seems to be vigorous.  Started growing pads way faster than the O. phaeacantha cultivars planted at the same time.  Very promising.
*O. humifusa v. inermis - Easily overwinters despite our wet winters.  Grows well if watered in the summer.
*O. sp. - Spinless
*O. sp. (probably O. polyacantha)- Originally from Tolstoy Farm in Eastern WA.


Goji Berries (Lycium barbarum):

(Solanum sp.):
*Tomatoes (S. lycopersicon) - naturalized in greenhouse.
*Black Nightshade (S. nigrum complex, probably S. americanum) - Native volunteer in disturbed soils.  Edible berries when fully ripe.  Not tried yet...

Other Fruits:

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba):
*Seedlings - Seed grown from two batches of seed (both from ebay).  One batch was wild collected from the best tasting fruit found while someone traveled through multiple states.  The other batch is seed from selected commercial varieties.
*'Allegheny' - Variety selected for heavy production.

Persimmons (Diospyros sp.):
*'Nikita's Gift' (D. kaki x virginiana) - Hardy hybrid persimmon grafted onto american rootstock.

Grapes (Vitis sp.):
*Unknown - Productive
*Unknown - Good flavor in flesh, but seeds slightly bitter
*Unknown - Lacks vigor, but small pale greenish berries are very sweet and tasty.
*V. labrusca 'Island Belle'/'Campbell's Early'
*V. labrusca 'Interlaken' - Small green/golden grapes.
*V. vinifera 'Venus' - Patented large blue grape from University of Arkansas breeding program.
*V. vinifera 'Black Monukka'
*V. vinifera 'Pixie Cabernet Franc' - Dwarf fine that is supposedly still productive.

Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia sp.):
*'Ken's Red' (A. arguta x melanandra)
*'Ananasnaya' (A. arguta) - Great yellow fall color
*'Meader' Hardy Male (A. arguta)
*'Issai' (A. arguta) - Semi-self fertile.  Lacks vigor, but I'm using it in a spot where I don't want an overly aggressive vine.

Elderberries (Sambucus sp.):
*'Emerald Lace' (S. nigra var. laciniata)
*'Black Lace' (S. nigra var. laciniata)
*'Eiffel 1' (S. nigra)
*Blue (S. cerulea)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum):
*'Parfianka'  - Well rated for flavor.
*'Eversweet' - Non-staining.  Edible even if not fully ripe.

Olives (Olea europaea):
*'Arbequina' - currently growing in ground in the greenhouse.  I plan to move it out to a permanent spot once it's a little older and has more mass to withstand the winters around here...

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba):
*'Tigertooth'  - Not sure if it will ripen its late season fruit here, but it should be hardy at least.  There are earlier ripening varieties, but I chose Tigertooth because it was the only variety which was available on its own roots.  Since I want to allow it to sucker and form a clonal colony over time a self rooted cultivar was a must.

Bitter Orange (Poncirus trifoliata):
*Generic - Accidental addition after a citrus failed to overwinter in my greenhouse and the rootstock took over.  It's an attractive shrub and I look forward to experimenting with it's future fruits.

Magnolia Vine (Schizandra chinensis):
*'Eastern Prince' - Self-fertile cultivar.  Shade tolerant.

Chilean Guava (Ugni molinae):
*Generic - Probably seed grown, or perhaps cutting grown without a cultivar name.

Mahonia (Mahonia sp.):
*Mahonia repens
*Mahonia aquifolium 'Compacta' - Compact form of tall oregon grape.  When I saw them in the nursery I was struck at how heavy their fruit set was.

Five Leaf Akebia (Akebia quinata):
*Unconfirmed ID - Cutting grown from an established specimen growing on a fence in the greater Seattle area.  Seems to be the generic purple type often sold without a varietal name.  Will need an additional variety for cross-pollination.

Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis):
*Standard type (is there any other?)


*Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria araucana) Seed grown from two batches of seed.  One batch was shipped from South America.
*Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) - Seed grown from seed shipped from Korea.
*English Walnut (Juglans regia) - Seed grown, plus one grafted.
*Hardy Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) - Seed grown from open pollinated 'Kanza' cultivar.
*Chestnut (Castanea crenata) - Seed grown from Silverleaf/Eurobella cultivar.
*Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) - Wild native volunteering here and there.  Not productive, and seeds are difficult to crack.
*Jefferson Hazel Seedlings (Corylus avellana) - Seed grown European hazels with parentage showing resistance to the hazelnut blight which damages European hazel trees.

Bulbs, Corms, Roots, Tubers, Etc.:

*Camas (Camassia quamash) - Native edible bulb that was historically a major food crop.
*(Crocus sieberi) - Mix of two cultivars, 'Firefly' and 'Tricolor'.  Edible corm supposedly tastes like hazelnuts.
*Sun-snaps (Helianthus tuberosus
*Hopniss (Apios americana) - Improved variety from Louisiana State University breeding program.
*Walking Onions (Allium x proliferum) - Not as nice as regular onions...
*Hardneck Garlic, 'Susan Delafield' (Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon) - Huge cloves, very hot flavor!
*Wapato (Sagittaria latifolia)

Misc. Vegetables:

*Asparagus (Asparagus officinales)
*Stinging Nettles (Urtica dioica)
*Rhubarb 'Crimson Cherry' (Rheum rhabarbarum/Rheum x cultorum)
*Sheep Sorrel (Rumex acetocella)
*Daylilies (Hemerocallis fulva) - Traditional orange non-hybrid species type.  Edible buds.
*Daylilies (Probably Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus) - Lemon yellow non-hybrid species type.
*Daylilies (Hemerocallis x 'Hyperion') - Tall, long leaved, fragrant, soft yellow flowers.
*Daylilies (Hemerocallis x '?') - Purple flowers
*Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium sp.) - Tasty greens, but not common volunteer on disturbed soils.
*Dandelion (Taraxicum officinale) - I have not yet acquired the taste for them, but have made good wine from the flowers, and they definitely are great for the bees.
*Water Cress (Nasturtium officinale)
*Cattail (Typha lattifolia)
*Elephant Garlic/Perennial Leeks (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum) - I use for the greens not the bulbs.
*Welsh Bunching Onions (Allium fistulosum) - I don't pull these.  I simply cut at ground level and let them regrow.  I can harvest each bulb a couple times a year.
*Delicata Squash (Cucurbita pepo) - Growing and saving seeds to develop my own land race best adapted to my conditions with minimal supplemental watering.  First planted in 2016.
*Redwood Sorrel 'Klamath Ruby' (Oxalis oregona) - Groundcover for shade with sour tasty leaves.  This cultivar has a red underside to the leaves making them a little bit more ornate.
*Houttuynia cordata 'Chameleon' - I have it and have tasted it, but am still debating whether I want to plant it as it can spread quite well...
*French Sorrel (Rumex acetosa) - I've got starts of two different clones (unsure if they are named).  One seems to have larger wavy edged leaves and produces flowers in the summer which slows down leaf production temporarily.  The other has smaller, but more abundant leaves and seems to not flower which keeps it in leaf production during the summer.  On visual and flavor appeal I'm preferring the flowering type so far.


*'Bronze' Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
*Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)
*Mint (Mentha sp.) - 'Spearmint', 'Scotchmint', 'Peppermint', 'Applemint', 'Wintergreen mint'
*Greek Oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum)
*Thyme (Thymnus sp.) - Mixed species.
*Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)
*Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
*Nodding Onions (Allium cernuum)
*Bay Laurel/Sweet Bay (Laurus nobilis)
*Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
*Russian Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) - Sterile hybrid comfrey for mostly external use as well as for green mulch and pulling nutrients from deep in the soil.
*Sage (Salvia officinalis), probably 'Berggarten' - Regular flavor, but doesn't seem inclined to flower.
*Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris) - native
*Plantain (Plantago major) - naturalized.  Green form common, and purple leaved form also present.


*(Salix koriyanagi var. 'Rubikins') - Basketry willow.
*(Salix sp.) Unknown - Basketry willow.
*(Salix alba?) - Possible use as basketry willow.
*(Salix sp.) Weeping Willow - Great livestock forage.


*Mica Inky Caps (Coprinellus micaceous) - Wild, small, but seasonally abundant.  Great flavor and easy to dry for later use.
*Honey Mushrooms (Armillaria sp.) - Wild, seasonally abundant.  Best fresh, but abundant harvests can be dried for later use.
*Turkey Tails (Trametes versicolor) - Wild, common and abundant over an extended period of time.  Too tough for eating, but can be used to make a mushroom stock and is reported to have anti-viral properties.
*Yellow Morels (Morchella esculenta or other similar) - Introduced.  Amazing harvest the first year, mediocre harvest the second year...
*Winecaps (Stropharia rugosoannulata) - Introduced.  Seasonally available, growing in wood chip mulch.
*Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) - Introduced into standing deadwood snags.  
*Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus) - Introduced into standing deadwood snags.
*Shaggy Mane/Shaggy Ink Cap (Coprinus comatus) - Only spotted on a few occasions, but I hope to encourage it.  It's delishous!

Animal Products:

*Meat (Ovis aries) - The piebald (aka Jacob) sheep help manage the land and the annual harvest of meat from the lambs is the dominant form of meat in my diet these days.
*Wool (Ovis aries) - In the past the wool has been so full of thorns and such that I haven't bothered with it, but as the land gets more tame the workability of the wool is improving.  This year I bought a spinning wheel and was able to make some cozy cold weather hats as well as some dish cloths/hot pads for kitchen use.  Interested in doing more...
*Fat (Ovis aries) - The lambs don't have much fat, but occasionally I harvest an older sheep and it will have enough fat to save for soap making.  
*Honey (Apis melifera) - Delicious, and I'm finally getting the hang of keeping them around.  The key seems to be to just provide housing for local bees rather than purchasing and bringing in bees from elsewhere.
*Wax (Apis mellifera) - As a byproduct of honey harvesting I get a bit of bees' wax which I have found useful here and there.  I've used it to seal terra cotta saucers as well as to make wood treatments.

Possible Future Additions Under Consideration:

*Pigeons (Columba livia domestica)
*Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas)
*Ramps (Allium triccocum)
*Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
*Morus alba x rubra 'Illinois Everbearing' - Own root only, not grafted
*Renkon/Lotus Root (Nelumbo nucifera) - Variety selected for rhizome production rather than ornamental flowers.
*'Thomasville' Citrangequat (Fortunella x Citrus x Poncirus) - Hardy to 5°F
*'Centennial' grape (Vitis vinifera)
*Stonecrop (Sedum oregonum) - edible leaves
*Dwarf Pine (Pinus pumila)

If you're in Washington State and would like to chat about permaculture and/or trade materials then please join my Facebook group: Permaculture Swap - Washington State

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