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Monday, February 27, 2017

It's time to start keeping a list of edible species (as well as non-edibles I find useful) that I am growing in my developing permaculture plot (Temperate climate, USDA Zone 8, Washington State, USA) which includes a small property of my own as well as two neighboring properties belonging to family members.  Looking over this list it would seen that I could feed myself with this, but in reality many of these plants are still in their early stages of establishment, and not all of them are highly productive...  The species and cultivars listed in GREEN are mature enough to be producing some harvest each year.  Those in RED are usually producing very good quantities each year.  Plants with a light blue background have been acquired, but have not yet been planted out.  All others have been planted already, but are not yet producing.

I will continue updating and organizing this list as it is basically a rough draft at this point...


Apples (Malus domestica & hybrids):
*Wild (mature) volunteer apple - Early ripening soft fruit which are very light in flavor.  Does not keep, but I enjoy eating it when in season and have found when picked under-ripe it makes a good pectin source for mixing with other fruits without adding a strong apple flavor.
*'Liberty' - Highly disease resistant red apple.
*'Wolf River' - Extremely large red streaked apple which I grafted onto a wild volunteer seedling apple.
*'Ellisons's Orange' - An offspring of the famous English Cox's Orange Pippin.
*'Centennial' (Crab) - Highly productive of large crabs good for fresh eating, but I find they seem at their best slightly before they appear fully ripe.  Make a nice soft mushy pickle when preserved in salt brine that is a useful addition in cookig.
*'Evereste' (Crab) - Highly ornamental and productive crab that is good for cooking.
*'Gravenstein' - Vigorous tree with good quality fruit.
*'Wine Crisp' - A Patented variety that is supposed to be resistant to a range of apple diseases and a very long keeper (many months).
*New grafts - Grafting unknown dark red as well as gala and granny smith onto rootstock in pots.  Will plant out if successful.
*Columnar - Not sure which one... Either North Pole or Scarlet Sentennal.  The deer keep eating it...
*'William's Pride' - Ripens in August
*'Pristine' - Ripens in August

Pears (Pyrus sp.):
*'Bosc' (P. communis) - Classic high quality pear that should keep well and have some disease resistance.
*'Rescue' (P. communis)
*'Seckel' (P. communis)
*'Shinseiki' (P. pyrifolia) - Disease resistant and good keeper.

Medlar (Mespilus germanica):
*'Monstrueuse de Evreinoff' - Large fruited French variety.

Quince (Cydonia oblonga):
*'Aromatnaya' (Cydonia oblonga)
*'Van Deman' (Cydonia oblonga)

Flowering Quince (Chaenomeles sp):
*'Toyo Nishiki' (C. speciosa) - Multi colored flowers.
*Seed Grown (C. cathayensis) - More tree like with larger fruit than common flowering quince.  Not commonly available.

Stone Fruits (Prunus sp. & hybrids):
*Cherry Plums (P. cerasifera) - Non-native volunteer with each tree having slightly different flavor and overall quality.  Some with deep purple/red leaves and some with green leaves.  Fruit small, but abundant.  Some specimens tend to bear biannually.
*Green Plum Unknown (P. sp.) - Very sweet green plum that turned out not to be anything like the variety supposedly planted.  Possibly a rootstock type, but very good.
*Italian Purple Plum (P. sp) - Lingering clonal population existing along property line from older (now gone) trees.  Good flavor, but very slow to come into bearing.  Tends to get maggots in fruit.
*Unknown Sweet Plum (P. sp) - Very sugary variety planted from a root sucker from a clonal patch at a friend's house.
*'Shiro' Plum (P. sp) - Yellow plum.
*'Jam Session' Plum (P. sp.) - Damson type.
*Sweet Cherries (P. avium) - Wild non-native volunteers.  Sweet fruit with smaller size than commercial cultivars and variable in color and flavor.  Attractive tall trees with most fruit held out of reach.
*Sour Cherries (P. cerasus), 'Surefire' - Highly disease resistant cultivar with tart fruit that still has enough sugar for fresh eating or cooking.
*'Black Boy' Peach (P. persica) - Very dark fleshed peach with resistance to peach leaf curl.
*'Chinese Sweet Pit' Apricot (P. armeniaca) - Edible fruit and sweet edible seed.

Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa):
*Seed grown - Productive dark berries good for winemaking.

Service Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia)
*Seed grown - Native edible fruit similar to blueberries, but biologically like mini apples.

Strawberries (Fragaria sp. & hybrids):
*Pink variety (F. ananasa x Comarum sp.), also growing sees out from this variety - Pink flowers almost year round with fruit set during warmer months.  Clumping and not highly productive.
*Alpine (F. vesca) - Clumping, and readily growing from seed.  Both red and white berry forms setting fruit whenever weather is warm enough for pollinators.
*Native (F. sp.) - Small, probably runner-less plants with tiny tasty fruit of the June bearing type.
*'Totem' (F. ananasa) - June bearing with very upright stems on vigorous plants.  Great flavor.

Blackberries & Raspberries (Rubus sp.):
*Red Raspberries, unknown variety (R. idaeus) - Originally from Tolstoy Farm in Eastern Washington.
*Red Raspberries, 'Tulameen' (R. idaeus)
*Black Raspberries, 'Ohio Treasure' (R. occidentalis) - Bears on both first and second year growth.
*Dewberry (R. ursinus) - Trailing native with separate male and female plants.  Not highly productive, but very tasty.
*'Triple Crown' (R. fruticosus)- Vigorous, thornless.
*'Ouachita' (probably) Blackberry (R. fruticosus) - Upright, thornless.
*'Wild Treasure' Blackberry (R. sp.) - Thornless hybrid of native dewberry and Waldo blackberry.
*Salmonberry (R. spectabilis) - Native, shrubby, common.  Fruit orange to red and of variable quality.
*Thimbleberry (R. parviflorus) - Native, variable productivity.  Very tasty when ripe and well watered.
*Black Cap Raspberry (R. leucodermus) - Native black raspberry with whitish finish on stems giving it ornamental look.  Lightly productive of pleasant tasting, but overly mild fruits.
*Himalayan (R. armeniacus) - Highly invasive with some areas producing abundant crops and others just wasting space with poor production and accessibility.  Control measures in place.
*Evergreen/Cutleaf (R. laciniatus) - Invasive, but not common.
*Nagoon Berry (R. articus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.  Self-fertile.
*All Field Berry 'Valentina' (R. articus x stellarticus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.
*All Field Berry 'Sophia' (R. articus x stellarticus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.

Rose Hips (Rosa sp. & Hybrids):
*'MEIdomonac' aka "Bonica" (Probably - didn't keep the tag) - Heavy blooming pale pink rose that was planted as an ornamental and surprised me with a nice crop of rose hips.  I did try making tea from them which was pleasant so I will continue using it for hips.


(Eleagnus sp.):
*'Fruitlandii' (E. pungens) - Evergreen with tasty red fruit in spring.  Winter blooming.  Doesn't seem to set fruit without a pollinator.
*'Golden Silverberry' (E. pungens) - Evergreen with variegated leaves.  Hopefully will be a good pollinator for Fruitlandii.
*'Garnet' Autumn Olive (E. umbellata) - Small red tasty berries late in the season.
*Goumi (E. multiflora), unknown cultivar - Tasty red berries.  May need a second variety for pollination...
*Goumi (E. multiflora), Seedling - Seed grown to pollinate unknown variety listed above.

Seaberries (Hippophae rhamnoides):
*Male - Needed to wind pollinate female cultivars.
*Female, 'Goldensweet' - Sweeter than average.  Not sure if this is due to higher sugar content or simply lower acid content.
*Female, 'Otradnaya' - Large fruit.


Figs (Ficus carica):
*'Stella'/'Cordi' - Green exterior, red interior.  Bifare.
*'Desert King' - Green exterior.  Breba.
*'Olympian' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.
*'Atreano' - Green exterior.  Bifare.
*'Hardy Chicago' - Dark exterior.  Main.
*'Violette De Bordeaux' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.
*'Verte/Green Ischia' - Green exterior.
*'English Brown Turkey' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.

Mulberries (Morus sp.):
*Dwarf Black (Morus nigra) - Small growing bush type rather than tree like.
*Contorted (Morus sp. 'Unryu')


Blueberries/Huckleberries/Cranberries (Vaccinium sp.):
*Blueberry, 'Liberty' (V. sp) - Grows up to 7 feet high.  Being planted as part of a mixed hedge.
*Blueberry, 'Pink Lemonade' (V. sp)
*Blueberry, Assorted varieties (V. sp)
*Red Huckleberry (V. parvifolium) - Native grows on rotting red cedar stumps.
*Evergreen Huckleberry (V. ovatum)
*Cranberries (V. macrocarpum) - Seed grown, plus one of the cultivar 'Stevens'.

Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo):
*'Compacta' - Attractive evergreen with ornamental and tasty fruit.  Best flavor/texture is just before they look fully ripe while they transition between orange and red.

(Gaultheria sp.):
*Salal (G. shallon) - Native evergreen understory shrub with tasty purple berries.
*White Wintergreen (G. sp.) - Spreading low evergreen with fragrant leaves and white berries.


Gooseberries (Ribes uva-crispa & hybrids):
*Unknown - Highly productive from a young age.  Green berries take on reddish color when at their peak of ripeness
*Unknown - Very tasty and not too tart, but very little production.
*'Hinnomaki Yellow' - Low growing
*'Black Velvet'

Currants (Ribes sp):
*Red Unknown (R. rubrum)
*White Unknown (R. rubrum)
*Black Unknown (R. nigrum) - Probably the variety called Consort.
*Black, 'Hill's Kiev Select' (R. nigrum x ) - Hybrid black currant.
*Clove Currant (R. odoratum)
Golden Currant (R. aureum)


Hedgehog Cacti (Echinocereus sp.):
*E. triglochidiatus v. inermis
*E. triglochidiatus v. gonacanthus 'White Sands'

Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia sp.):
*O. phaeacantha v. woodsii 'Brilliant Orange'
*O. phaeacantha 'Plum'
*O. phaeacantha 'Mesa Sky'
*O. macrocentra
*O. humifusa v. inermis
*O. sp. - Spinless
*O. sp. (probably O. polyacantha)- Originally from Tolstoy Farm in Eastern WA.


Goji Berries (Lycium barbarum):

(Solanum sp.):
*Tomatoes (S. lycopersicon) - naturalized in greenhouse.
*Black Nightshade (S. nigrum complex, probably S. americanum) - Native volunteer in disturbed soils.  Edible berries when fully ripe.  Not tried yet...

Other Fruits:

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba):
*Seedlings - Seed grown from two batches of seed (both from ebay).  One batch was wild collected from the best tasting fruit found while someone traveled through multiple states.  The other batch is seed from selected commercial varieties.

Persimmons (Diospyros sp.):
*'Nikita's Gift' (D. kaki x virginiana) - Hardy hybrid persimmon grafted onto american rootstock.

Grapes (Vitis sp.):
*Unknown - Productive
*Unknown - Good flavor in flesh, but seeds slightly bitter
*Unknown - Lacks vigor, but small pale greenish berries are very sweet and tasty.
*'Island Belle'/'Campbell's Early' (V. labrusca)
*'Interlaken' - Small green/golden grapes.
*'Venus' - Patented large blue grape from University of Arkansas breeding program.

Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia sp.):
*'Ken's Red' (A. arguta x melanandra)
*A (A. arguta)
*'Meader' Hardy Male (A. arguta)
*'Issai' (A. arguta) - Semi-self fertile.  Lacks vigor.

Elderberries (Sambucus sp.):
*'Emerald Lace' (S. nigra)
*'Black Lace' (S. nigra)
*Blue (S. cerulea)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum):
*'Parfianka'  - Well rated for flavor.
*'Eversweet' - Non-staining.  Edible even if not fully ripe.

Olives (Olea europaea):
*'Arbequina' - currently growing in ground in the greenhouse.  I plan to move it out to a permanent spot once it's a little older and has more mass to withstand the winters around here...

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba):
*'Tigertooth'  - Not sure if it will ripen its late season fruit here, but it should be hardy at least.  There are earlier ripening varieties, but I chose Tigertooth because it was the only variety which was available on its own roots.  Since I want to allow it to sucker and form a clonal colony over time a self rooted cultivar was a must.

Bitter Orange (Poncirus trifoliata):
*Unknown - Accidental addition after a citrus failed to overwinter in my greenhouse and the rootstock took over.  It's an attractive shrub and I look forward to experimenting with it's future fruits.

Magnolia Vine (Schizandra chinensis):
*'Eastern Prince' - Self-fertile cultivar.  Shade tolerant.

Chilean Guava (Ugni molinae):
*Unknown - Probably seed grown, or perhaps cutting grown without a cultivar name.


*Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria araucana) Seed grown from two batches of seed.  One batch was shipped from South America.
*Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) - Seed grown from seed shipped from Korea.
*English Walnut (Juglans regia) - Seed grown, plus one grafted.
*Hardy Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) - Seed grown from Kanza cultivar.
*Chestnut (Castanea crenata) - Seed grown from Silverleaf/Eurobella cultivar.
*Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) - Wild native volunteering here and there.  Not productive, and seeds are difficult to crack.
*Jefferson Hazel Seedlings (Corylus avellana) - Seed grown European hazels with parentage showing resistance to the hazelnut blight which damages European hazel trees.

Bulbs, Corms, Roots, Tubers, Etc.:

*Camas (Camassia quamash)
*(Crocus sieberi) - Mix of two cultivars, 'Firefly' and 'Tricolor'.  Edible corm supposedly tastes like hazelnuts.
*Sun-snaps (Helianthus tuberosus)
*Hopnis (Apios americana) - Improved variety from Louisiana State University breeding program.
*Walking Onions (Allium x proliferum) - Not as nice as regular onions...
*Hardneck Garlic, 'Susan Delafield' (Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon) - Huge cloves, very hot flavor!
*Wapato (Sagittaria latifolia)
*Yakon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) - I'm growing it in the unheated greenhouse.  Yields have been nearly non-existent so I'm gonna try a different cultivar before giving up.

Misc. Vegetables:

*Asparagus (Asparagus officinales)
*Stinging Nettles (Urtica dioica)
*Rhubarb 'Crimson Cherry' (Rheum rhabarbarum/Rheum x cultorum)
*Sheep Sorrel (Rumex acetocella)
*Daylilies (Hemerocallis fulva) - Traditional orange non-hybrid species type.  Edible buds.
*Daylilies (Probably Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus) - Lemon yellow non-hybrid species type.
*Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium sp.) - Tasty greens, but not common volunteer on disturbed soils.
*Dandelion (Taraxicum officinale) - I have not yet acquired the taste for them, but have made good wine from the flowers, and they definitely are great for the bees.
*Water Cress (Nasturtium officinale)
*Cattail (Typha lattifolia)
*Elephant Garlic/Perennial Leeks (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum) - I use for the greens not the bulbs.
*Welsh Bunching Onions (Allium fistulosum) - I don't pull these.  I simply cut at ground level and let them regrow.  I can harvest each bulb a couple times a year.
*Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) - I bring this in for the cooler months as freezing will kill it.
*Delicata Squash (Cucurbita pepo) - Growing and saving seeds to develop my own land race best adapted to my conditions with minimal supplemental watering.  First planted in 2016.
*Redwood Sorrel 'Klamath Ruby' (Oxalis oregona) - Groundcover for shade with sour tasty leaves.  This cultivar has a red underside to the leaves making them a little bit more ornate.


*'Bronze' Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
*Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)
*Mint (Mentha sp.) - 'Spearmint', 'Scotchmint', 'Peppermint', 'Applemint'
*Greek Oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum)
*Thyme (Thymnus sp.) - Mixed species.
*Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)
*Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
*Nodding Onions (Allium cernuum)
*Bay Laurel/Sweet Bay (Laurus nobilis)
*Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
*Russian Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) - Sterile hybrid comfrey for mostly external use as well as for green mulch and pulling nutrients from deep in the soil.
*Sage (Salvia officinalis), probably 'Berggarten' - Regular flavor, but doesn't seem inclined to flower.


*Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)


*(Salix koriyanagi var. 'Rubikins') - Basketry willow.
*(Salix sp.) Unknown - Basketry willow.
*(Salix sp.) unknown - Possible use as basketry willow.
*(Salix purpurea 'Nana') - Dwarf possible for basketry.
*(Salix sp.) Weeping Willow - Great livestock forage.


*Mica Inky Caps (Coprinellus micaceous) - Wild, small, but seasonally abundant.  Great flavor and easy to dry for later use.
*Honey Mushrooms (Armillaria sp.) - Wild, seasonally abundant.  Best fresh, but abundant harvests can be dried for later use.
*Turkey Tails (Trametes versicolor) - Wild, common and abundant over an extended period of time.  Too tough for eating, but can be used to make a mushroom stock and is reported to have anti-viral properties.
*Yellow Morels (Morchella esculenta or other similar) - Introduced.  Amazing harvest the first year, mediocre harvest the second year...
*Winecaps (Stropharia rugosoannulata) - Introduced.  Seasonally available, growing in wood chip mulch.
*Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) - Introduced into standing deadwood snags.  
*Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus) - Introduced into standing deadwood snags.
*Shaggy Mane/Shaggy Ink Cap (Coprinus comatus) - Only spotted on a few occasions, but I hope to encourage it.  It's delishous!

Animal Products:

*Meat (Ovis aries) - The piebald (aka Jacob) sheep help manage the land and the annual harvest of meat from the lambs is the dominant form of meat in my diet these days.
*Wool (Ovis aries) - In the past the wool has been so full of thorns and such that I haven't bothered with it, but as the land gets more tame the workability of the wool is improving.  This year I bought a spinning wheel and was able to make some cozy cold weather hats as well as some dish cloths/hot pads for kitchen use.  Interested in doing more...
*Fat (Ovis aries) - The lambs don't have much fat, but occasionally I harvest an older sheep and it will have enough fat to save for soap making.  
*Honey (Apis melifera) - Delicious, and I'm finally getting the hang of keeping them around.  The key seems to be to just provide housing for local bees rather than purchasing and bringing in bees from elsewhere.
*Wax (Apis mellifera) - As a byproduct of honey harvesting I get a bit of bees' wax which I have found useful here and there.  I've used it to seal terra cotta saucers as well as to make wood treatments.

Possible Future Additions Under Consideration:

*Pigeons (Columba livia domestica)
*Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas)
*'Perpetual' Sorrel/French Sorrel (Rumex acetosa)
*Renkon/Lotus Root (Nelumbo nucifera)

If you're in Washington State and would like to chat about permaculture and/or trade materials then please join my Facebook group: Permaculture Swap - Washington State