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Monday, June 26, 2017

Hardy Fuchsias with decent fruit

I will be trialing 10 varieties of Fuchsia for fruit quality and overwintering ability in Pierce County, WA (USDA zone 8, but seems to act more like zone 7 sometimes).

My initial selection criteria for these ten varieties follows:
*Hardiness rating of H3 (hardy after established with mulch only required the first year)
*Upright or semi-upright for growing in the ground
*Showy flowers (according to my tastes)
*Availability at time of order

The 10 varieties chosen:
*'Alice Hoffman'
*'Jingle Bells'
*'Santa Claus'
*'Astoria'
*'Pixie'
*'Falklands'
*'Tessie'
*'Double Otto'
*'Delta's Sarah'
*'Phyllis'

These will all be small rooted starts so I will overwinter them in an unheated greenhouse for the first winter.  Then if mature enough I will plant them in the ground spring or summer of next year (2018) and mulch them heavily their first winter.  I will not fully judge their fruit quality until they have established in the ground.

Sunday, June 18, 2017

My Carnivorous Plants

Carnivorous plants are awesome.  Here in western Washington we can grow pretty much any of the Sarracenia (American pitcher plants) species and hybrids as well as a few others.  As a child I was fascinated with venus-fly-traps because they moved when catching prey.  In my adulthood I've discovered that some (maybe not all) of the pitcher plant species and hybrids are far better bug catchers and they have stolen my heart.  Since my "collection" of pitcher plants is growing I think I ought to keep a list of what I've got and what I think of it.  This is that list:

Sarracenia:
*S. alata var. rubrioperculata - I think this was a named cultivar, but I didn't keep track of it.  Nice red color under the hood.
*S. leucophylla 'Tarnoc' - a named variety with normal pitchers but mutated flowers.  It's okay, but I like flowers which actually are functional and capable of reproduction.
*S. leucophylla var. alba 'Hurricane Creek White' - Seedling from a cross of clone A & D.
*S. leucophylla (1) - Seedling from cross of clone AJ01 & 07-1, so far typical appearance for the species. 
*S. leucophylla (2) - Seedling from cross of clone AJ01 & 07-1,, so far typical appearance for the species.
*S. leucophylla (3) - Seedling from cross of clone AJ01 & 07-1,, so far typical appearance for the species.
*S. flava var. cuprea 'Chocolate Top' - Similar to a copper top type, but with stronger coloring.  I like it.  I plan to let mine become a large colony.  :)
*S. minor - Typical appearance for the species.
*S. minor var. okefenokeensis - Typical appearance for the variety.
*S. [(oreophilla 'Sand Mountain' x flava) x 'Redman'] 'Nereid' - A newly named hybrid from Jerry Addington which is part of a series named after Neptune's moons.  It is a medium sized plant with fat upright red pitchers with a greenish hood with red veins.  It struck me as being more productive of nectar on the neck and around the hood than the average pitcher plant.  I was lucky to get one as it wasn't for sale, but Jerry broke off a growing point from one of his stock plants for me.  Thanks Jerry!
*S. oreophila 'North Sound' x S. flava 'Chocolate Top' - Large hybrid which I bought mistakenly thinking it was S. 'Doreen's Colossus' since it looked almost identical and I didn't check the label.  It shares the same parent species (but not the same parent clones).  I had actually picked out this one thinking of the available 'Doreen's Colossus' this was the nicest looking one.  The only visible difference between the two from what I can tell is that I somehow am more drawn to this one!  :)  We'll see if it looks the same or different later in the season.
*S. oreophilla x ? - Hybrid aqcuired with known parentage which I lost.  I remember oreophilla was one parent, but it's pitcher shape is rather more like rubra or alata, very elongated.
*S. ??? - I can't even remember what this one looks like.  I'll have to observe it as the pitchers grow out.
*S. psittacina - typical appearance for the species.
*S. purpurea ssp. venosa - typical appearance for the species, evergreen
*S. pupurea/rosea? x ? - similar to purpurea, but pitchers a little longer and slightly more upright with hood slightly more folded than open.  Probably a named variety for which I lost the name.  Evergreen with reddish pitchers.
*S. rubra ssp. rubra - small but vigorous quickly making a nice clump.
*S. x complex hybrid - probably un-named hybrid with young pitchers green with red veins.  Pitchers mature to full on deep dark red.  Semi-evergreen.  Flowers red.
*S. mystery seedling (1A) - Found as seedling growing under a S. flava 'Chocolate Top' from Jerry Addington's nursery.  Parents could be just about anything, but guesses will come as it matures.
*S. mystery seedling (1B) - Found as seedling growing under a S. flava 'Chocolate Top' from Jerry Addington's nursery.  Parents could be just about anything, but guesses will come as it matures.
*S. mystery seedling (1C) - Found as seedling growing under a S. flava 'Chocolate Top' from Jerry Addington's nursery.  Parents could be just about anything, but guesses will come as it matures.
*S. mystery seedling (2A) - Found as seedling in my own collection.  Parents unknown, but options are probably limited to S. purpurea ssp. venosa, S. x complex hybrid and S. rubra since those are what have been blooming for me the past couple years.
*S. mystery seedling (2B) - Found as seedling in my own collection.  Parents unknown, but options are probably limited to S. purpurea ssp. venosa, S. x complex hybrid and S. rubra since those are what have been blooming for me the past couple years.

Darlingtonia californica:
* Typical species type

Drosera:
*D. filiformis - Typical
*D. capensis - Typical
*D. rotundifolia - Typical

Dionaea muscipula:
*D. 'Red Dragon' - Very red form

Saturday, May 27, 2017

Russian Comfrey?

In trying to understand a naturalized population of comfrey near where I grew up in Washington state, USA I have spent days scouring the internet to find any and every tid-bit of information regarding how to distinguish which species/hybrid of comfrey it is.  Based on the obvious features of the plants I was able to quickly narrow it down to the following: Common comfrey (S. officinale), Prickly comfrey (S. asperum/asperimum) and Russian comfrey (S. uplandicum/peregrinum).  Russian comfrey is a hybrid of the common comfrey and the prickly comfrey and understandably shares a lot of traits with its parents.  The hybrid type comfrey is naturally occurring (where the parent species both exist) and could theoretically occur in endless combinations of traits between both parents.

The following are the distinguishing traits I've encountered for Common, Russian and Prickly comfrey when compared to each other:
*Common - Less vigorous, shorter, narrower leaves, flowers tending to be creamy yellow, but also found in white, red or purple, leave edges attaching to the stem and running down it like "wings", fertile seed produced allowing for natural spread
*Russian - Very vigorous, taller, wider leaves, flowers tending to be blue, purple or reddish purple, leaves lacking "wings" where attaching to the stems, but sometimes with slight "wings" in certain specimens, supposedly sterile (but see my note below) and only spreading by root division
*Prickly - The tallest of the three, seems to play better with other plants (less dense and smothering), flowers tending to be blue while buds can be more pink, leaves lacking "wings" where attached to stems or with very little "wings", spreads by seed (not excessively) as well as by root divisions.

Out of all these traits it seems that the most commonly mentioned trait across the internet to distinguish these types is that Common and Prickly (prickly usually not even being mentioned) spread by seed and the hybrid Russian does not.  This is similar to how a horse and a donkey can mate and produce a mule, but mules are considered sterile... usually...  Although we know that mismatched chromosome counts in offspring resulting from inter-species breeding often results in sterility of offspring in animals, the same isn't as reliably true for plants.  In fact nowadays you can buy strawberries with pink flowers that were the result of plants in two separate genera and with different chromosome counts being hybridized and then back-crossed with strawberries to produce plants with mostly strawberry type characteristics but with the pink flower color of the non-strawberry parent.  My point to all of this is that I think the idea that ALL Russian comfrey strains are sterile doesn't seem well founded.  It seems that most of the info available about the Russian type stems from info that's actually specifically about the Bocking cultivars (google them for more info).  There are two Bocking cultivars that are widely distributed from when they were selected in the 1950's.  The claim about Russian comfrey being sterile may be true for the two most popular cultivars of Russian comfrey since selecting for sterile seed would have been part of the process.  However, I suspect that Russian comfrey in general may not be fully sterile as an overall variable population.  I found an old identification key for comfrey that listed traits for identifying and distinguishing Russian comfrey and its two parent species as well as the varying back-crosses between the hybrid and one parent species or the other.  A Finnish website also referenced the Russian type readily back-crossing with either parent making identification very challenging.  I also encountered a reference to Russian comfrey (in general) possessing fertile pollen.

Until recently, I was under the impression that all the comfrey in my location seemed to be the Russian type and assumed it was all one singular clone, and were only spread around through soil disturbance.  I've never had a problem with comfrey seedlings popping up where roots weren't accidentally/intentionally moved to.  Now, after closer observation I have found genetic variation in some parts of the population, and now I'm wondering if there might actually be some limited genetic variation within the population as well as a separate distinct population sharing the nearby area.

The main clonal colony

At the time I'm writing this, the comfrey is in full bloom (which is beautiful), and I can see that the vast majority in the main patches where it has spread through soil disturbance look identical in every way right down to the exact color of the flowers...  Except...  Then I noticed variations in the flower color and shape in a select few individuals at the edge of the colony and elsewhere in very sparse colonies within about a quarter mile or so of the main patches.  While the main clonal type is incredibly vigorous and uniform with rounded bell shaped pinkish flowers I found two specimens with flowers so pale with just a hint of blue/pink that they were close to white.  I also found one with a much purer and more saturated pink color.  These first variations still had the same flower bud & bloom shape as the main clonal colonies and showed the same level of vigor.  Then I started noticing  that here and there along the road outside of the main area where the comfrey grows there were sparsely scattered specimens with much bluer flowers often streaked blue/pink.  When still in bud, the main clonal type have roundish buds with only a soft point, whereas the bluer flowered types were consistently displaying more pointed and narrow flower buds which opened into slightly narrower flowers.  I'm beginning to suspect these individuals may be either Prickly comfrey or Russian comfrey back-crossed to Prickly comfrey.

As a side note, I saw on a Facebook gardening post where a lady asked why her comfrey grown from a root cutting had a different flower color than the parent plant the cutting was taken from.  This reminded me of how African violets can be grown clonally from leaf cuttings, but the progeny do not always end up blooming with the same color as the parents despite being genetic clones.  I wonder if this phenotypic color change could be an explanation for the rare variants I found that otherwise seem the same as my large clonal patches...  There is so much to wonder about that it may never all be known...

This may be about as well as I'll ever figure things out for my comfrey, but I will continue to observe and learn.  I'm not sure that I would be able to afford the genetic testing required to satisfy my curiosities.  :)

I am posting this in hopes that my opinions will be challenged and refined.  Maybe I've got everything all wrong.  Your thoughts and input are welcome.

Follow-up:  After scouring the comfrey population for variants I dug a chunk out of my favorite four plants to grow on side by side for comparison.  I had to cut them back a bit for transplant, but after about a week two of them are blooming again.  He're the kicker...  The two that are blooming now were the two with the bluest flowers I could find.  Guess what color they are now...  Pure beautiful pink.  It will be interesting to see if they turn back to blue later or if the color is actually affected by the change in soil they are growing in rather than genetic variation or mutation.  Perhaps they're like hydrangeas?

These guys are representative of the majority of the population.  The following show variation, but are by far in the minority.  Some of the following pictures simply are to show the normal range of leaves and stems as well.








These two may be the Prickly comfrey or some back-cross with it.


Notice the cluster at the bottom of the picture.  It's buds are much more pointy with a greater color change between bud and bloom.





Monday, February 27, 2017

It's time to start keeping a list of edible species (as well as non-edibles I find useful) that I am growing in my developing permaculture plot (Temperate climate, USDA Zone 8, Washington State, USA) which includes a small property of my own as well as two neighboring properties belonging to family members.  Looking over this list it would seen that I could feed myself with this, but in reality many of these plants are still in their early stages of establishment, and not all of them are highly productive...  The species and cultivars listed in GREEN are mature enough to be producing some harvest each year.  Those in RED are usually producing very good quantities each year.  Plants with a light blue background have been acquired, but have not yet been planted out.  All others have been planted already, but are not yet producing.

I will continue updating and organizing this list as it is basically a rough draft at this point...

Rosaceae

Apples (Malus domestica & hybrids):
*Wild (mature) volunteer apple - Early ripening soft fruit which are very light in flavor.  Does not keep, but I enjoy eating it when in season and have found when picked under-ripe it makes a good pectin source for mixing with other fruits without adding a strong apple flavor.
*'Liberty' - Highly disease resistant red apple.
*'Wolf River' - Extremely large red streaked apple which I grafted onto a wild volunteer seedling apple.
*'Ellisons's Orange' - An offspring of the famous English Cox's Orange Pippin.
*'Centennial' (Crab) - Highly productive of large crabs good for fresh eating, but I find they seem at their best slightly before they appear fully ripe.  Make a nice soft mushy pickle when preserved in salt brine that is a useful addition in cookig.
*'Evereste' (Crab) - Highly ornamental and productive crab that is good for cooking.
*'Gravenstein' - Vigorous tree with good quality fruit.
*'Wine Crisp' - A Patented variety that is supposed to be resistant to a range of apple diseases and a very long keeper (many months).
*New grafts - Grafting unknown dark red as well as gala and granny smith onto rootstock in pots.  Will plant out if successful.
*Columnar - Not sure which one... Either North Pole or Scarlet Sentennal.  The deer keep eating it...
*'William's Pride' - Ripens in August
*'Pristine' - Ripens in August
*Rootstock, Semi-dwarf - Collected from root suckers from a friend's tree.  The trees seemed to be fairly productive & sturdy, and all in the 8'-12' height range.  Young stems seem to have a good bit of pigment in them making them dark, but the leaves are regular green.
*Rootstock, Semi-dwarf/vigorous? - Collected from root suckers from one of my columnar apples.  It could potentially be either MM106 (Semi-vigorous 10'-14') or M7 (Semi-Dwarf 9'-12') rootstock since both options are used for columnar apples, but M7 seems to be the most likely identity since I remember the rootstock was listed as "semi-dwarf" when I purchased it.  We can safely say this would produce trees in the 9'-14' range.

Pears (Pyrus sp.):
*'Bosc' (P. communis) - Classic high quality pear that should keep well and have some disease resistance.
*'Rescue' (P. communis)
*'Seckel' (P. communis)
*'Shinseiki' (P. pyrifolia) - Disease resistant and good keeper.

Medlar (Mespilus germanica):
*'Monstrueuse de Evreinoff' - Large fruited French variety.

Quince (Cydonia oblonga):
*'Aromatnaya' (Cydonia oblonga)
*'Van Deman' (Cydonia oblonga)

Flowering Quince (Chaenomeles sp):
*'Toyo Nishiki' (C. speciosa) - Multi colored flowers.
*Seed Grown (C. cathayensis) - More tree like with larger fruit than common flowering quince.  Not commonly available.

Stone Fruits (Prunus sp. & hybrids):
*Cherry Plums (P. cerasifera) - Non-native volunteer with each tree having slightly different flavor and overall quality.  Some with deep purple/red leaves and some with green leaves.  Fruit small, but abundant.  Some specimens tend to bear biannually.
*Green Plum Unknown, probably St. Julien (P. insititia) - Very sweet green plum that turned out not to be anything like the variety supposedly planted.  Possibly a rootstock type, but very good.
*Italian Purple Plum (P. sp) - Lingering clonal population existing along property line from older (now gone) trees.  Good flavor, but very slow to come into bearing.  Tends to get maggots in fruit.
*Unknown Sweet Plum (P. sp) - Very sugary variety planted from a root sucker from a clonal patch at a friend's house.
*'Shiro' Plum (P. sp) - Yellow plum.
*'Jam Session' Plum (P. sp.) - Damson type.
*Sweet Cherries (P. avium) - Wild non-native volunteers.  Sweet fruit with smaller size than commercial cultivars and variable in color and flavor.  Attractive tall trees with most fruit held out of reach.
*Sour Cherries (P. cerasus), 'Surefire' - Highly disease resistant cultivar with tart fruit that still has enough sugar for fresh eating or cooking.
*'Black Boy' Peach (P. persica) - Very dark fleshed peach with resistance to peach leaf curl.

Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa):
*Seed grown - Productive dark berries good for winemaking.

Service Berry (Amelanchier alnifolia)
*Seed grown - Native edible fruit similar to blueberries, but biologically like mini apples.
*Unkown - from Cascadia Edible Landscapes in Seattle.
*'Regent' - a stoloniferous variety that flowers and fruits havily.  I strongly suspect that although listed as A. alnifolia, it is quite likely to be either A. stolonifera or a hybrid.

Strawberries (Fragaria sp. & hybrids):
*Pink variety (F. ananasa x Comarum sp.), also growing sees out from this variety - Pink flowers almost year round with fruit set during warmer months.  Clumping and not highly productive.
*Alpine (F. vesca) - Clumping, and readily growing from seed.  Both red and white berry forms setting fruit whenever weather is warm enough for pollinators.
*Native (F. sp.) - Small, probably runner-less plants with tiny tasty fruit of the June bearing type.
*'Totem' (F. ananasa) - June bearing with very upright stems on vigorous plants.  Great flavor.

Blackberries & Raspberries (Rubus sp.):
*Red Raspberries, unknown variety (R. idaeus) - Originally from Tolstoy Farm in Eastern Washington.
*Red Raspberries, 'Tulameen' (R. idaeus)
*Red Raspberries, 'NR7' (R. idaeus) - Compact, dwarf and thornless.  Produces on both new and second year stems.
*Black Raspberries, 'Ohio Treasure' (R. occidentalis) - Bears on both first and second year growth.
*Dewberry (R. ursinus) - Trailing native with separate male and female plants.  Not highly productive, but very tasty.
*'Triple Crown' (R. fruticosus- Vigorous, thornless.
*'Ouachita' (probably) Blackberry (R. fruticosus) - Upright, thornless.
*'Wild Treasure' Blackberry (R. sp.) - Thornless hybrid of native dewberry and Waldo blackberry.
*Salmonberry (R. spectabilis) - Native, shrubby, common.  Fruit orange to red and of variable quality.
*Thimbleberry (R. parviflorus) - Native, variable productivity.  Very tasty when ripe and well watered.
*Black Cap Raspberry (R. leucodermus) - Native black raspberry with whitish finish on stems giving it ornamental look.  Lightly productive of pleasant tasting, but overly mild fruits.
*Himalayan (R. armeniacus) - Highly invasive with some areas producing abundant crops and others just wasting space with poor production and accessibility.  Control measures in place.
*Evergreen/Cutleaf (R. laciniatus) - Invasive, but not common.
*Nagoon Berry (R. articus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.  Self-fertile.
*All Field Berry 'Valentina' (R. articus x stellarticus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.
*All Field Berry 'Sophia' (R. articus x stellarticus) - Deciduous fruiting groundcover.

Rose Hips (Rosa sp. & Hybrids):
*'MEIdomonac' aka "Bonica" (Probably - didn't keep the tag) - Heavy blooming pale pink rose that was planted as an ornamental and surprised me with a nice crop of rose hips.  I did try making tea from them which was pleasant so I will continue using it for hips.

Eleagnaceae

(Eleagnus sp.):
*'Fruitlandii' (E. pungens) - Evergreen with tasty red fruit in spring.  Winter blooming.  Doesn't seem to set fruit without a pollinator.
*'Golden Silverberry' (E. pungens) - Evergreen with variegated leaves.  Hopefully will be a good pollinator for Fruitlandii.
*'Garnet' Autumn Olive (E. umbellata) - Small red tasty berries late in the season.
*Goumi (E. multiflora) Seedling - Seed grown to help with cross-pollination.
*Goumi (E. multiflora) 'Sweet Scarlet' - Selected variety with high quality fruit.

Seaberries (Hippophae rhamnoides):
*Male - Needed to wind pollinate female cultivars.
*Female, 'Goldensweet' - Sweeter than average.  Not sure if this is due to higher sugar content or simply lower acid content.
*Female, 'Otradnaya' - Large fruit.

Moraceae

Figs (Ficus carica):
*'Stella'/'Cordi' - Green exterior, red interior.  Bifare.
*'Desert King' - Green exterior.  Breba.
*'Olympian' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.
*'Atreano' - Green exterior.  Bifare.
*'Hardy Chicago' - Dark exterior.  Main.
*'Violette De Bordeaux' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.
*'Verte/Green Ischia' - Green exterior.
*'Gillette' - Edible male variety. Bifare.
*'Florea' - Aledgedly increadibly cold hardy and also productive.  I'm mostly interested in using this to share rooted starts with people in colder parts of the state.  Bifare.
*'Petite Negra' - Dark exterior.  Bifare.

Mulberries (Morus sp.):
*Dwarf Black Issai (Morus alba) - Small growing bush type rather than tree like.
*Contorted (Morus sp. 'Unryu')

Ericaceae

Blueberries/Huckleberries/Cranberries (Vaccinium sp.):
*Blueberry, 'Libery' (V. sp) - Grows up to 7 feet high.  Being planted as part of a mixed hedge.
*Blueberry, 'Pink Lemonade' (V. sp)
*Blueberry, Assorted varieties (V. sp)
*Red Huckleberry (V. parvifolium) - Native grows on rotting red cedar stumps.
*Evergreen Huckleberry (V. ovatum)
*Cranberries (V. macrocarpum) - Seed grown, plus one of the cultivar 'Stevens'.

Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo):
*'Compacta' - Attractive evergreen with ornamental and tasty fruit.  Best flavor/texture is just before they look fully ripe while they transition between orange and red.

(Gaultheria sp.):
*Salal (G. shallon) - Native evergreen understory shrub with tasty purple berries.
*White Wintergreen (G. sp.) - Spreading low evergreen with fragrant leaves and white berries.

Grossulariaceae

Gooseberries (Ribes uva-crispa & hybrids):
*Unknown - Highly productive from a young age.  Green berries take on reddish color when at their peak of ripeness
*Unknown (possibly 'Poorman') - Very tasty and not too tart, but very little production for the first few years.  Now as it's very well established it is beginning to bear heavily.
*'Hinnomaki Yellow' - Low growing
*'Colossal'
*'Black Velvet'

Currants (Ribes sp):
*Red Unknown (R. rubrum)
*White Unknown (R. rubrum)
*Black Unknown (R. nigrum) - Probably the variety called Consort.
*Black, 'Hill's Kiev Select' (R. nigrum x) - Hybrid black currant.
*Clove Currant (R. odoratum)
*Golden Currant (R. aureum)

Cactaceae

Hedgehog Cacti (Echinocereus sp.):
*E. triglochidiatus v. inermis - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*E. triglochidiatus v. gonacanthus 'White Sands' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now

Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia sp.):
*O. phaeacantha v. woodsii 'Brilliant Orange' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*O. phaeacantha 'Plum' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*O. phaeacantha 'Mesa Sky' - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now
*O. macrocentra - Growing in terra-cotta pots for now.  Seems to be vigorous.  Started growing pads way faster than the O. phaeacantha cultivars planted at the same time.  Very promising.
*O. humifusa v. inermis - Easily overwinters despite our wet winters.  Grows well if watered in the summer.
*O. sp. - Spinless
*O. sp. (probably O. polyacantha)- Originally from Tolstoy Farm in Eastern WA.

Solanaceae

Goji Berries (Lycium barbarum):
*Unknown

(Solanum sp.):
*Tomatoes (S. lycopersicon) - naturalized in greenhouse.
*Black Nightshade (S. nigrum complex, probably S. americanum) - Native volunteer in disturbed soils.  Edible berries when fully ripe.  Not tried yet...

Other Fruits:

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba):
*Seedlings - Seed grown from two batches of seed (both from ebay).  One batch was wild collected from the best tasting fruit found while someone traveled through multiple states.  The other batch is seed from selected commercial varieties.
*'Allegheny' - Variety selected for heavy production.

Persimmons (Diospyros sp.):
*'Nikita's Gift' (D. kaki x virginiana) - Hardy hybrid persimmon grafted onto american rootstock.

Grapes (Vitis sp.):
*Unknown - Productive
*Unknown - Good flavor in flesh, but seeds slightly bitter
*Unknown - Lacks vigor, but small pale greenish berries are very sweet and tasty.
*V. labrusca 'Island Belle'/'Campbell's Early'
*V. labrusca 'Interlaken' - Small green/golden grapes.
*V. vinifera 'Venus' - Patented large blue grape from University of Arkansas breeding program.
*V. vinifera 'Black Monukka'
*V. vinifera 'Pixie Cabernet Franc' - Dwarf fine that is supposedly still productive.

Hardy Kiwi (Actinidia sp.):
*'Ken's Red' (A. arguta x melanandra)
*'A (A. arguta)
*'Meader' Hardy Male (A. arguta)
*'Issai' (A. arguta) - Semi-self fertile.  Lacks vigor.

Elderberries (Sambucus sp.):
*'Emerald Lace' (S. nigra var. laciniata)
*'Black Lace' (S. nigra var. laciniata)
*'Eiffel 1' (S. nigra)
*Blue (S. cerulea)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum):
*'Parfianka'  - Well rated for flavor.
*'Eversweet' - Non-staining.  Edible even if not fully ripe.

Olives (Olea europaea):
*'Arbequina' - currently growing in ground in the greenhouse.  I plan to move it out to a permanent spot once it's a little older and has more mass to withstand the winters around here...

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba):
*'Tigertooth'  - Not sure if it will ripen its late season fruit here, but it should be hardy at least.  There are earlier ripening varieties, but I chose Tigertooth because it was the only variety which was available on its own roots.  Since I want to allow it to sucker and form a clonal colony over time a self rooted cultivar was a must.


Bitter Orange (Poncirus trifoliata):
*Unknown - Accidental addition after a citrus failed to overwinter in my greenhouse and the rootstock took over.  It's an attractive shrub and I look forward to experimenting with it's future fruits.

Magnolia Vine (Schizandra chinensis):
*'Eastern Prince' - Self-fertile cultivar.  Shade tolerant.

Chilean Guava (Ugni molinae):
*Unknown - Probably seed grown, or perhaps cutting grown without a cultivar name.

Mahonia (Mahonia sp.):
*Mahonia repens
*Mahonia aquifolium 'Compacta' - Compact form of tall oregon grape.  When I saw them in the nursery I was struck at how heavy their fruit set was.

Five Leaf Akebia (Akebia quinata):
*Unconfirmed ID - Cutting grown from an established specimen growing on a fence in the greater Seattle area.  Seems to be the generic purple type often sold without a varietal name.  Will need an additional variety for cross-pollination.

Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis):
*Standard type (is there any other?)

Nuts:


*Monkey Puzzle (Araucaria araucana) Seed grown from two batches of seed.  One batch was shipped from South America.
*Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) - Seed grown from seed shipped from Korea.
*English Walnut (Juglans regia) - Seed grown, plus one grafted.
*Hardy Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) - Seed grown from Kanza cultivar.
*Chestnut (Castanea crenata) - Seed grown from Silverleaf/Eurobella cultivar.
*Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta) - Wild native volunteering here and there.  Not productive, and seeds are difficult to crack.
*Jefferson Hazel Seedlings (Corylus avellana) - Seed grown European hazels with parentage showing resistance to the hazelnut blight which damages European hazel trees.

Bulbs, Corms, Roots, Tubers, Etc.:

*Camas (Camassia quamash) - Native edible bulb that was historically a major food crop.
*(Crocus sieberi) - Mix of two cultivars, 'Firefly' and 'Tricolor'.  Edible corm supposedly tastes like hazelnuts.
*Sun-snaps (Helianthus tuberosus)
*Hopnis (Apios americana) - Improved variety from Louisiana State University breeding program.
*Walking Onions (Allium x proliferum) - Not as nice as regular onions...
*Hardneck Garlic, 'Susan Delafield' (Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon) - Huge cloves, very hot flavor!
*Wapato (Sagittaria latifolia)
*Yakon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) - I'm growing it in the unheated greenhouse.  Yields have been nearly non-existent so I'm gonna try a different cultivar before giving up.

Misc. Vegetables:

*Asparagus (Asparagus officinales)
*Stinging Nettles (Urtica dioica)
*Rhubarb 'Crimson Cherry' (Rheum rhabarbarum/Rheum x cultorum)
*Sheep Sorrel (Rumex acetocella)
*Daylilies (Hemerocallis fulva) - Traditional orange non-hybrid species type.  Edible buds.
*Daylilies (Probably Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus) - Lemon yellow non-hybrid species type.
*Daylilies (Hemerocallis x 'Hyperion') - Tall, long leaved, fragrant, soft yellow flowers.
*Daylilies (Hemerocallis x '?') - Purple flowers
*Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium sp.) - Tasty greens, but not common volunteer on disturbed soils.
*Dandelion (Taraxicum officinale) - I have not yet acquired the taste for them, but have made good wine from the flowers, and they definitely are great for the bees.
*Water Cress (Nasturtium officinale)
*Cattail (Typha lattifolia)
*Elephant Garlic/Perennial Leeks (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum) - I use for the greens not the bulbs.
*Welsh Bunching Onions (Allium fistulosum) - I don't pull these.  I simply cut at ground level and let them regrow.  I can harvest each bulb a couple times a year.
*Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) - I bring this in for the cooler months as freezing will kill it.
*Delicata Squash (Cucurbita pepo) - Growing and saving seeds to develop my own land race best adapted to my conditions with minimal supplemental watering.  First planted in 2016.
*Redwood Sorrel 'Klamath Ruby' (Oxalis oregona) - Groundcover for shade with sour tasty leaves.  This cultivar has a red underside to the leaves making them a little bit more ornate.
*Renkon/Lotus Root (Nelumbo nucifera) - Variety selected for rhizome production rather than ornamental flowers.
*Houttuynia cordata 'Chameleon' - I have it and have tasted it, but am still debating whether I want to plant it as it can spread quite well...

Herbs:

*'Bronze' Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
*Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)
*Mint (Mentha sp.) - 'Spearmint', 'Scotchmint', 'Peppermint', 'Applemint'
*Greek Oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum)
*Thyme (Thymnus sp.) - Mixed species.
*Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)
*Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
*Nodding Onions (Allium cernuum)
*Bay Laurel/Sweet Bay (Laurus nobilis)
*Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
*Russian Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum) - Sterile hybrid comfrey for mostly external use as well as for green mulch and pulling nutrients from deep in the soil.
*Sage (Salvia officinalis), probably 'Berggarten' - Regular flavor, but doesn't seem inclined to flower.
*Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris) - native
*Plantain (Plantago major) - naturalized.  Green form common, and purple leaved form also present.

Grain:

*Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)

Willow:

*(Salix koriyanagi var. 'Rubikins') - Basketry willow.
*(Salix sp.) Unknown - Basketry willow.
*(Salix sp.) unknown - Possible use as basketry willow.
*(Salix purpurea 'Nana') - Dwarf possible for basketry.
*(Salix sp.) Weeping Willow - Great livestock forage.

Mushrooms:

*Mica Inky Caps (Coprinellus micaceous) - Wild, small, but seasonally abundant.  Great flavor and easy to dry for later use.
*Honey Mushrooms (Armillaria sp.) - Wild, seasonally abundant.  Best fresh, but abundant harvests can be dried for later use.
*Turkey Tails (Trametes versicolor) - Wild, common and abundant over an extended period of time.  Too tough for eating, but can be used to make a mushroom stock and is reported to have anti-viral properties.
*Yellow Morels (Morchella esculenta or other similar) - Introduced.  Amazing harvest the first year, mediocre harvest the second year...
*Winecaps (Stropharia rugosoannulata) - Introduced.  Seasonally available, growing in wood chip mulch.
*Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) - Introduced into standing deadwood snags.  
*Lion's Mane (Hericium erinaceus) - Introduced into standing deadwood snags.
*Shaggy Mane/Shaggy Ink Cap (Coprinus comatus) - Only spotted on a few occasions, but I hope to encourage it.  It's delishous!

Animal Products:

*Meat (Ovis aries) - The piebald (aka Jacob) sheep help manage the land and the annual harvest of meat from the lambs is the dominant form of meat in my diet these days.
*Wool (Ovis aries) - In the past the wool has been so full of thorns and such that I haven't bothered with it, but as the land gets more tame the workability of the wool is improving.  This year I bought a spinning wheel and was able to make some cozy cold weather hats as well as some dish cloths/hot pads for kitchen use.  Interested in doing more...
*Fat (Ovis aries) - The lambs don't have much fat, but occasionally I harvest an older sheep and it will have enough fat to save for soap making.  
*Honey (Apis melifera) - Delicious, and I'm finally getting the hang of keeping them around.  The key seems to be to just provide housing for local bees rather than purchasing and bringing in bees from elsewhere.
*Wax (Apis mellifera) - As a byproduct of honey harvesting I get a bit of bees' wax which I have found useful here and there.  I've used it to seal terra cotta saucers as well as to make wood treatments.

Possible Future Additions Under Consideration:

*Pigeons (Columba livia domestica)
*Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas)
*'Perpetual' Sorrel/French Sorrel (Rumex acetosa 'TM683')
*Ramps (Allium triccocum)
*Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
*'Chinese Sweet Pit' Apricot (P. armeniaca) - Edible fruit and sweet edible seed.
*Morus alba x rubra 'Illinois Everbearing' - Own root only, not grafted
*Ficus carica 'Gillette'

If you're in Washington State and would like to chat about permaculture and/or trade materials then please join my Facebook group: Permaculture Swap - Washington State